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Thirty Turkmen Rugs -
Masterpieces from the Collection of S. M. Dudin
Part I (Salor Weavings)

by Elena Tsareva

Originally appeared in Oriental Rug Review, Vol. 11, #1


I thought it was important to reproduce this article for more people to see. It was first published about 16 years ago, and since that time there are many more people who have expressed an interest in Turkmen weavings. All of the rugs have been published elsewhere, but the book is out of print and not readily available in book stores, though I believe Dennis Marquand still offers it (rugbooks.com). But the real value of making this piece of writing widely available is the reliance upon long quotes written by SM Dudin so long ago.

His long journal lies in the Russian Ethnographic Museum, untranslated for the most part. I had wanted to work with Elena Kordik to translate the text and make his travelogue available to students of Central Asian photography and textile art. So these few snippets offered by Elena are interesting as well as informative. This is only the first part of the article, dealing primarily with Salor weavings; the remainder is a work in progress on my part. - Tom Cole

Kirhgiz making a rug. Note the manner in which the loom is supported. Also the pile area in front of the weaver on the right is not even with the rest of the weaving.
S.M. Dudin, 1902

The most remarkable of all known Central Asian rug collections is the pioneer group of textiles collected by Samuil Martynovich Dudin. The majority of the pieces are in the State Museum of Ethnography of the People of the U. S. S. R. , Leningrad, and some are in the State Hermitage, Leningrad. The history of how the collection came into existence is also interesting. At the end of the l9th century, the Russian Emperor's family decided to enlarge the Russian Museum and to organize a new department of ethnography.1 In order to form a Central Asian collection, they invited S.M. Dudin (1863-1926),2 already a well known amateur specialist of Oriental art, to travel to Central Asia to compile ethnographic material and create a photographic collection. Later Dudin wrote in his report:

"In the winter of 1900 Academician V.V. Radlov suggested to me that I prepare a short program for a journey to Central Asia, aimed at compiling an ethnographic collection on the Sarts of Russian Turkestan... I prepared a program then submitted it for consideration to the Grand Prince Georgiy Mikhailovich, and it was accepted by him...."3

Koshi Village. Obviously a very settled and agricultural environment. Similar scenes may still be seen today in northern Afghanistan. S.M. Dudin, 1901-1902

From his two main trips - 1901 and 1902 - Dudin returned with an enormous number of objects (2,526), unsurpassed in their richness and diversity, including 350 rugs and carpets. Most of the rugs were turned over to the Russian Museum by Dudin, and in 1937 the widow of the artist donated 23 more pieces to the State Hermitage.

The difficult conditions of life and travel in Central Asia in the early 20th century, together with the enormous objective of the undertaking, required such remarkable skill and effort to make the expedition successful. One becomes acutely aware of this when reading Dudin's report of the expedition.

Most of Dudin's rug collection are Turkoman pieces, as he considered the Turkmen to be the best carpet weavers in the
world. However Uzbek, Kirghiz, Baluch, and Afghan rugs of Central Asia are well represented as well. Dudin himself wrote in his report: "Among the objects of the material culture my interest was aimed mostly at rugs, embroidery and jewelry. Besides the common and artistic interest which they demonstrate, they are the only items through which you can study Turkoman art. I considered it necessary to collect as many of them as possible as these pieces have become rare among the local population. Many years before they were sold to the market following increasing interest in them from the various merchants who sold these objects.-. The largest number of pieces were obtained naturally enough from the shops and bazaars... Visiting yurts, I aimed at another very important purpose: I wanted to know about the characteristics and ornamentation of the rugs, to confirm all of the terms which the merchants and local ‘experts' use."4

Woman spinning wool, S.M. Dudin

Man twining wool, S. M. Dudin

The value of Dudin's attributions for the pieces in the collection is that he often received information either from the owners or from the merchants who knew the local products well.

Aside from the material objects, Dudin assembled a great number of photos (over 1,800) and obtained important field information. Based on his knowledge of the material, Dudin wrote some articles, the most important of which for those studying carpet weaving is "Rugs of Central Asia," published unfortunately only after his death.5

The methodology used by Dudin in studying Central Asian rugs sounds surprisingly up-to-date even today and was used by those who followed him. Admiring the artistic feeling of this great collector and the variety of his interests, one must not go to extremes and canonize his every word. Many of his attributions now look questionable, not unlike the attributions of his contemporaries. First, Dudin got some incorrect ideas from local merchants; second, in Dudin's time no one paid much attention to
the technical characteristics associated with the attributions.6 Dudin himself based his attributions on the artistic impression of the rugs, leading to inevitable errors.

From this point of view Dudin's work can be studied as an historical source. Taking the opinions of Dudin and his contemporaries as a starting point and comparing them with modern knowledge, it is easy to see progress in the field. This principle was taken as a starting point for this introduction, which is why there will be many citations from Dudin's personal notes.

The organizing ethnographic principle chosen for the catalog is the same as that used by Dudin in his article: Turkoman, Uzbek, Kirghiz, and Baluch. Such an approach may seem old-fashioned but using it as a starting point for showing the difference between current knowledge and previous theories of the topic, I considered it logical to follow the principle chosen by Dudin more than 90 years ago.


"The best in all respects of Turkoman pile articles indisputably must be those named Salor or (according to the place of their production in the past) Pendeh. They are also the oldest ones, for until now only among them could one find an example 200 years old and more. Their high textile qualities, amazingly beautiful coloring, and the beauty of ornamentation are highly appreciated not only by Europeans but by the Turkmen of other tribes as well. Undoubtedly this was the reason that even now a great number of their articles are preserved, as they were the very pieces which were in every way possible taken care of, not used in everyday life, exposed to light only on especially important and exceptional occasions (arrival of guests, festivals, etc.). Passed from generation to generation they were preserved in their original state to this day.

Turkoman horseman. Note the embroidered felt saddle blanket and felt bedroll
S.M. Dudin, 1901

"The group of Pendeh pile items includes properly speaking the works of two tribes - Salors and Saryqs (according to A. Semyonov). But according to my information, gathered in 1901 during my journey to the country on the instructions of the Russian Museum, the Saryqs (at that time) were not engaged in carpet weaving; regarding the Salors, the rugs produced by them at the present time have departed both in quality and in ornamentation from the ‘Salor' carpets in the truest sense, that is from the antique Salor production. They approach the Akhal Tekke rugs, forming an intermediate group between one and another. These later pile pieces really have mixed characteristics and peculiarities of both groups, to an extent where it is often difficult to decide how to attribute them. It must be noted here that with very old Pendeh rugs, kaps7 and so on, there is never any doubt as to their attribution to one and the same group; but the newer the pieces are, the sooner you find doubtful items which you don't know whether to call Salor or Akhal. But if you take into consideration that the basic mass of Salors, being pressed by Saryqs, nearly 80 years ago moved from their ancestral territory across the Persian border and because of the requisitions committed by new authorities, they stopped making carpets. At the same time, the small group which remained among the Saryqs and Akhal Tekkes naturally had to submit slightly to their influence but at the same time exerted some influence upon them. Thus, both phenomena will become understandable. That is: among old pieces we find Salor products made before they abandoned carpet weaving and left the boundaries of their ancient settlement, while in the new products those of mixed type, made some time later - on one hand by Salors who remained on Russian territory and on the other by the representatives of the Akhal and Saryq tribes which lived in the vicinity and adopted some of the Salor decor....

"Study of their ornamentation presents a special interest as we are entitled and desire to find the most refined features of the Turkmen style, especially as the Salors are the most ancient Turkmen tribe from which all the other tribes descended...."

1. SALOR Turkmen, Chuval
4'3"x2'I0" (130x85 cm)
18th-early 19th century, SME No. 26-32

Design: Chuval gol,
Warp: Wool, ivory; mixed with gray, Z2S, rather thick, depressed
Weft: Wool, natural light brown and dyed dark brown, Z2S, loose, two shoots, one light, one dark
Knot: Wool, Z2S and Z3S; asymmetric, open right; count: 12 horizontal(46), 17 vertical (68), 104 per sq. inch (3, 128 dm2); pile looks down
Colors: Dark red, crimson red, terracotta red, brown, yellow, dark blue, blue, dark green, ivory; natural dyes
Sides: Three-four warps overcast with red wool
Ends: Upper: Red and ivory flatweave folded over to the front and covered by a sewn on dark blue braid and red tape; Lower: Missing

Purchased: 1901, Merv, "kap Tekke, torba pile woolen"
Published: Tsareva, Rugs; pl. 8

This long citation was necessary to demonstrate both Dudin's presentation of Salor carpet weaving which remained unchanged during the last 90 years and the ones which differed. Dudin's affirmation of the character and importance of early Salor carpet weaving has become common and it was even identified as an S-Group in recent works. At the same time, knowledge of the characteristic features of Salor carpet weaving is greatly enriched and now there is no difficulty recognizing Salor pieces from Tekke ones (I mean Akhal Tekke) or Saryqs, although Dudin and some of his contemporaries did not define the latter as a separate group. Today Salor carpet weaving is one of the best known8 and is recognized, concurring with Dudin's opinion, as the classical version of Turkmen carpet production. As Dudin noted, "the starting point" of Turkmen carpet weaving traces from Salor weaving, though, primarily, he considered the artistic features of the rugs.

Dudin seemed to understand the essential aesthetic ofTurkmen carpet. He again and again underlines the major difference between the Central Asian and Caucasian, nomadic and settled carpet weaving. These main differences are: the immobility of design, the setting of color and dynamics of pattern against the ground in Caucasian carpets, and the sublimation of pattern colors with the ground color of the central field in Turkoman rugs.

2. SALOR Turkmen, Torba
3'I0"xl'4" (116x41 cm)
18th-early 19th century. SME No. 26-90

Design: Shemle gol
Warp: Wool, ivory, Z2S, depressed
Weft: Wool, brown, mixed with ivory, some red in elem, Z2S, rather fine, two shoots
Knot: Wool and silk, Z2S and Z3S (silk and orange-red); asymmetric open left; count: 14 horizontal (53), 18 vertical (74), 252 per sq. inch (3,930 dm2); pile looks down
Colors: Dark brick red, bright red, pink (silk), crimson (silk), crimson (wool), yellow, violet-brown, dark brown, dark blue, blue, ivory; natural dyes
Sides: Three warps overcast with dark blue wool, red and green plait sewn on the edge which goes into a tape at the upper end (missing) and finishes with a tassel at the lower end
Ends: Upper: Red and ivory flatweave folded over to the face and sewn down, over the edge sewn on red and brown tape with silk embroidery; Lower: Ivory flatweave folded over to the back and sewn down, late multicolored fringe sewn on

Purchased: 1900, Samarkand, "mafrach woolen, pile, of extremely fine design, old Salor"
Published: Tsareva, Rugs, pl. 13; Felkersam, plate, page 13

Going back to Dudin's description of the Salor group of rugs, it is worth noting that Dudin emphasized the great rarity of Salor main carpets:

"Salor carpets in the exact meaning of the word, especially of large dimensions, are a great rarity. At least I, myself, never met them and am given to doubt they were ever produced in any significant number."

This quote makes it possible to conclude that, though Dudin often attributed some fine pieces as old Salor, they could have been Saryqs or Tekkes. HIs attributions were never based upon the basis of design, ie. the names of patterns. He never thought many carpets with the so-called "Salor gol" were produced by this tribe, while other connoisseurs do so automatically. In reality the majority of these rugs were produced by Merv Tekkes.9
Dudin's rug collection is very rich in Salor pile pieces in comparison with the number of known Salor pieces which have survived, including seven items in the State Museum of Ethnography and three in the State Hermitage.

Dudin wrote that "... Salor pieces are met with rather often and are not rare...," but it is difficult to agree with him. It seems that he formed this opinion because of his incorrect attributions, identifying as Salor most Saryq weavings, some Tekke and even some Yomud pieces.

It doesn't matter now what Dudin thought in his time, as we now know that practically all antique Salor items are truly rare. They are valued highly today both because of their rarity and because of the inherent beauty of the weavings.

3. SALOR Turkmen, Torba
3'4"x1'6" (102x45 cm)
Late 18th or early 19th century, SME No. 26-23

Design: Aksu
Warp: Wool, ivory, Z2S, tightly twisted,depressed
Weft: Wool dark brown 7Z2S, loosely twisted,two shoots
Knot: wool and silk, Z2S, Z3S (silk), Z4S; asymmetric open left; count: 10-12 horizontal (4-47), 17-20 vertical (65-79), 170-240 per square inch (2,700-3,700 dm2)
Colors: Red, crimson red, crimson (silk), pink (silk), terracotta red, violet-brown, dark brown, dark blue, blue, green-blue, ivory, orange (in two places); natural dyes
Sides: Missing
Ends: Upper: Ivory and red flatweave folded over to the back and sewn down, late finish; Lower: Ivory flatweave, missing, remains of dark blue fringe on 8 warps

Purchased: 1901, Merv, "mafrach Salor, pile, woolen, with silk, old"
Published: Tsareva, Rugs, pl. 1, Felkersam plate page 12

One of the most characteristic features of Salor carpet weaving is the tradition they represent in both weave and design. If we take chuval No. 1, the analysis will be: mixed ivory and gray wool warps, Z2S; two shoots of weft, wool, Z2S; weft shoots alternate one light brown and one dyed red; and so on, up to the final, upper end. The top kilim is turned over to the face and covered with a plaited, sewn-on band, this being very characteristic for Salor upper end finishes. The only difference from the majority of other Salor pieces is the absenceof silk in the pile. In most Salor items, main carpets among them, silk is used at least in small quantities. Sometimes the area of silk pile occupies up to one-fifth of the ornamented surface.

The enhduring tradition of Salor carpet weaving is evidenced not only in technique but in ornamentation as well. Hence this juval with 4x4 juval guls, secondary diamond gul pattern, kotshak pattern for the main border, and minor border with chakmak pattern is very characteristic of the type. Slightly less usual is a patternless elem, as most Salor chuvals have the kelle pattern in the elem.

4. SALOR Turkmen, Asmalyk
4'10"x2' (148x62 cm)
Late 18th early 19th century, SME No. 26-19

Design: Kejebe with Single Medallion
Warp: Wool, ivory, Z2S,.depressed
Weft: Wool, brown, Z,2S, in the middle one of sometimes two red wool, two shoots
Knot: Wool and silk, Z2S, Z3S (crimson red and orange-red in elem, ivory and silk); asymmetric open right; count: 12 horizontal (48), 17 vertical (68) 210 per square inch (3,264 dm2)
Colors: Orange-red, crimson red, crimson (silk), yellow (small details), orange, terracotta , red, dark blue, ivory; natural dyes
Sides: Two warps overcast with red wool; red and blue plait sewn to the edge, going into band at upper corner, at the lower end into a tassel
Ends: Upper: Dark blue and ivory flatweave folded over to the back and sewn down; Lower: Ivory flatweave folded over to the back and sewn down; dark blue fringe on 4 warps near the pile, 16" long (41 cm)

Purchased: 1901, Samarkand, "mafrach Salor, pile, woolen, old"
Published: Tsareva, Hali 6/2 1984 p. 131; Felkersam, plate page 12

One of the finest examples of Salor weaving is the shemie torba No. 2. Dudin wrote about such items:

"...among the well made rugs you can more often find hundred year old examples than among the more recent ordinary pieces of the household. Regarding the close relationship of artistic and stylistic aspects to technical quality, there is no need to prove that the finer the weaving, the sooner you can expect a weaver to more precisely depict the artistic taste and style of the tribe; every rug, being either individual or collective work, in fulfillment represents more often the reflection of tribal than of individual taste and style."

Very often these "well made" items differ slightly in technique from the majority of the tribe's production. They have unusual
knots, high density of weaving, richer coloring and elaboration of ornaments; their designs are the most ancient.

The shemle pattern of torba No. 2, in my opinion, is one of the most antique Turkoman patterns and represents a highly stylized image of the "tree of life" motif. Similar adaptations of this pattern can be seen on contemporary weavings, with the kejebe pattern, while their common ancestor, may be seen in the central field of some Seljuk rugs.10

Similar in both feeling and palette is the mafrash with the aksu pattern, No. 3. As with most Salor pieces, it is harmonious in appearance and refined in composition. The number of colors used, 11 in the torba and 12 in the mafrash, seems to be the maximum for Salor production.

5. SALOR Turkmen, Kapunuk
4'3"x4'3" (128x128 cm)
18th century, SME No. 26-94

Design: Curled Leaf
Warp: Wool, ivory, mixed with brown,Z2S,depressed
Weft: Wool, ivory, mixed with brown, Z2S, very fine, two shoots
Knot: Wool, Z2S, Z3S (white in some places); asymmetric open left; count: 11 horizontal (45); 22 vertical (88), 242 per square inch (3,960 dm2)
Colors: Terracotta red (two tints), orange, yellow, dark brown, dark blue, blue-green, ivory; natural dyes
Sides: Terracotta red wool overcast over 3 warps
Ends: Upper: Red and ivory flatweave folded over to the back and sewn down 1.8 cm wide tassel of olive brown color, with embroidery in pink silk and with orange overwrapping sewn on over the edge; Lower: Similar to upper end in the center, the lower ends of vertical stripes; warp ends knotted in fringe, late silk fringe is sewn on over the original

Purchased: 1900, Samarkand, "kapunnuk, pile, woolen, door surround... Yomuds"
Published: Tsareva, Rugs, pl. 4; Felkersam, plate page 26, detail

Mafrashes, being the items which left the yurt more often than other pile pieces, accompanying their owners during visits to relatives and neighbors, were usually decorated with unusual patterns. The meaning of most of them is hopelessly lost. As to the aksu design, it attracted the attention of rug scholars long ago. At first, it was believed to belong to the Chinese sphere of influence; it was then believed to be purely Central Asian in origin, "having a Chinese shape by chance." Today, I think that the first researchers were correct and that the pattern originated from the town of Ak Su in Chinese Turkestan, which had ancient trade contacts with Central Asia and was famous for its rugs, the aksu composition being rather popular. It can be assumed that the motif came to Central Asia rather early and was surely "homeless" (by contrast with gols, for example), as it was used by all Central Asian carpet weaving peoples, Turkmen, Uzbeks, Kirghiz. and known as "aksu" everywhere. These facts point indirectly to one and the same source, apparently Khotan rugs.

14. TEKKE Turkmen, Kapunuk
3'7"x2'7" (109x77cm)
19th century, SME No. 26-54

Design: Curled Leaf
Warp: Wool, ivory, Z2S
Weft: Wool, brown mixed with gray, Z2S, sLightly twisted, two shoots
Knot: Wool and silk, Z2S; asymmetric, open right; count: 12 horizontal (48), 21 vertical (108), 324 per square inch (5,184 dm2)
Colors: Violet- red, bright red, pink (silk), orange, yellow, brown, dark blue, blue, green-blue, ivory; natural dyes
Sides : Two warps overcast with dark blue and green wool; blue and red plait sewn to upper corners
Ends: Upper: red and white flatweave folded over to the back and sewn down; Lower: Similar to upper; multicolored fringe on 4 warps near the pile 12" long (30 cm)

Purchased: Samarkand, "kapunnuk, door surround, pile, woolen, decorated with fringe at the lower end... Turkomans"
Published: Tsareva, Rugs, pp. 37- 38

One of the best examples of Salor production in Dudin's collection is the asmalyk No. 4, notable with a rather rare composition, used also on some camel trappings of the Ersari group. The coloring differs in tints from the previous items and in some ways is close to the previously mentioned Ersaris (Beshir group). As differences in coloring are one of the few current bases for attributions within groups of rugs, it is possible to suggest that the asmalyk was produced by Amu Darya Salors, not by Serakhs Salors, as were the other two bags.
Dudin himself often referred to asmalyks as mafrashes, which undoubtedly points to his information gleaned from merchants who had no idea of the use of these items.

At the beginning of the century there was a great confusion with terminology; now the situation is standardized,11 and it doesn't matter if some modern names differ from those used by the local population (mostly as regional variants).

Detail, 5, Salor Kapunuk.
Detail, 14, Tekke Turkmen Kapunuk

Another even rarer piece in Dudin's collection is a kapunuk, No. 5, which Dudin himself attributed to the Yomuds (similar to many other more or less unusual items such as five-sided asmalyks, khalyks, and so on). Observe the shape of this door surround. It is absolutely square in perimeter and is larger in dimension than Tekke or Saryq ones. The shape demonstrates the highest level of a weaver's skill, while we assume the size corresponds with the larger dimensions of Salor yurt door openings. It is even possible that Salors used kapunuks to decorate permanent dwellings which they constructed according to historical sources as early as their presence in Mangyshlak, ie.. the l7th century and earlier.12
The difference between old Salor and Saryq on the one hand, Salor and Tekke production on the other becomes especiallyevident when comparing similar form and design items made by different tribes. If you put together the two kapunuks -- No. 5 Salor and No. 14 Tekke -- you will see that although identical in shape and pattern, they present the stylistic differences of both tribes. For the Salors it is an austere aesthetic, refined though somewhat darkly colored, striking in depth and harmony of tints -- a vigorous, laconic, and complete composition. With the Tekke, it is the finest knotting, love for a lighter coloring with finely drawng teritary patterns. I think the best way for the beginner to understand the main peculiarities and distinctions of tribal carpet weaving is through comparison of such pairs as this.13

Notes by Elena Tsareva

The State Museum of Ethnography of the Peoples of the U.S.S.R. separated from the Russian Museum and got its modern name in 1934.

2. About S. M. Dudin, see my article "The Dudin Collection," Hali, Vol. 7, No. 3 1985, pp. 14-23. Twenty-nine pieces from the Dudin Collection are illustrated in this article, I9 in color. Only five of the pieces are included in this exhibition.

3. Dudin's Report is preserved in the archives of the SME, f. 1, op.2, d.235 and d.277.

4. In quoting Dudin I have tried to preserve his style which I consider to be very expressive.

5 S. M.. Dudin, "Pile Rug Articles of Central Asia," presented by Academician E. F. Karski at the meeting of the Department of Historical Sciences and Phylogeny on April 21, 1926. Collection Studies of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, v.VII, 1928, Leningrad, S.71-155. Also in German as "Teppiche Mittelasiens," Turkomenenforschung Band 5 , Reinhold Schletzer Verlag, Hamburg, 1984.

6. Dudin's article was an attempt to compliment and correct in some details the works of his contemporaries: A.A. Bogolubov, Carpets of Central Asia , St. Petersburg, 1908 (in English,Carpets of Central Asia , Crosby Press, Fishguard, 1973); A.A. Felkerzam, Old Carpets of Central Asia, Old Years October-December, 19 14-June, 1915 (in German Alte Teppische Mittelasiens, Reinhold Schletzer Verlag, Hamburg, 1979); S.S. Semyonov, "Carpets of Russian Turkestan in connection with the edition of Carpets of Central Asia from Bogolubov's Collection, St. Petersburg, 1907-08", Ethnnographical Review, Nos. 1-2, 1911, pp. 137-179.

7. Kap is a term used by most of the early Russian collectors. They used it to refer to the various sizes of bags made by Central Asian weavers, including juvals, mafrashes, torbas, and khorjins.

8. The most important works on Salor carpet weaving are: Azadi, S., Turkoman Carpets and the Ethnographic Significance of their Ornaments , Crosby Press, Fishguard, 1975; Moshkova, V.G., Carpets and Rugs of the Peoples of Central Asia in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries, Tashkent, I970 (in English, Oriental Rug Review Vols. III and IV); and Mackie, L. and Thompson, J., Turkmen, The Textile Museum, Washington, D.C., 1980.

For a bibliography of the Salors and their history, see in E. G. Tsareva, "Salor Carpets," Hali, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1984. A Salor kejebe asmalyk collected by Dudin and not included in the exhibition is illustrated in this article.

9. I wish to add some comments about the term "Salor gul," which many scholars considered for many years to be the tribal Salor gul and hopelessly tried to find it on Salor main carpets. Though it is now known what the real Salor gul looks like, there still exists an undying idea that this unique, complex, and beautiful element is a real Salor gul (in Russian its name is "Salor Rose"). The Salors themselves named it sagdag (that is Sogdian), also "Mary" or sometimes maida gul . There is a fine mess with rug terms thanks to merchants, who gave their own "trade" names to rugs and their ornaments, "Salor gul" being one of them, as it was often used in the products of this tribe. The same happened, for example, with the term "Bukhara carpets," which merchants used to designate half of all Turkoman rugs.

10. Serare Yetkin, Historical Turkish Carpets, Turkiye is Bankasi Cultural Publication, Istanbul, 1981, pl. 2.

. The most thorough description of the types of Turkoman woven items are described and illustrated in the aforementioned works of S. Azadi and V. G. Moshkova.

12. A. Dizikiev, "On the History of the Distribution of the Salor Turkomans from the l6th - beginning of the 20th c.", Studies in Turkoman Ethnography, edited by S.G. Agajanov and A. Orazov, Ashkhabad, 1965 (in Russian).

For further analogues, see Saryq kapunuk No. 87-9 in Tsareva, E.G., Rugs and Carpets from Central Asia, Aurora Art Publishers, Leningrad, 1984, pl. 19; and a similarly shaped and patterned item from the Ashkabad Collection, No. K-165, Dzumaniyazova, M., (sic Shakhberdyeva M.), "The Ashkhabad Turkomans," Hali, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1988, p. 40.

Copyright 1989 by Elena Tsareva. Original text and photographs appeared in Oriental Rug Review , Some photographs are re-scans
With much thanks, this article was reproduced with permission by Ron O'Callaghan and Elena Tsareva
No parts of this text nor the photos may be reproduced in any form without permission from Ron O'Callaghan, Elena Tsareva or myself